Number Words and Learned Helplessness
How about some number word puzzles? Here’s a well-known puzzle that you’ve likely seen before:
What is the first positive integer that, when spelled out, contains the letter a?
And here’s a modification of that puzzle that you may find a little more difficult:
What is the first positive integer that, when spelled out, contains the letter c?
And taking it one step further:
What letters are never used in the spelling of any positive integer?
Who says that math isn’t useful in English class?
One more problem in a similar vein:
Pick any positive integer you like, and count the letters when that number is spelled out. Now count the letters when the resulting number is spelled out. Continue ad infinitum. What do you get?
Maybe those weren’t your cup of tea. Perhaps anagrams are more to your liking, so here are two (related) puzzles for you.
Try to make an anagram for each of the following three words.
Too tough? Then try these three words instead.
If you had trouble with the first set, you’re in good company. There are no anagrams for the words whirl or slapstick.
These two sets of words were used by Charisse Nixon, a pyschologist at Penn State–Erie, who gave the first set of words to half her class and the second set of words to the other half. She instructed them to find an anagram of the first word on their list; those students who had received the second set were successful. Nixon then instructed them to find an anagram of the second word on their list; again, those students who had received the second set were successful. When she then instructed them to find an anagram of the third word on their list — of which there is exactly one, American — those who hadn’t found anagrams for the first two words were less successful than their peers, even though the final challenge was identical.
Afterwards, students who received the first set of words admitted to feeling confused, rushed, frustrated, and stupid.
Nixon was studying learned helplessness, a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, often arising from persistent failure.
This has implications the math classroom. Students who perform at a fourth-grade level but are asked to participate in an eighth-grade class are surely as confused and frustrated as the subjects in Nixon’s experiment. Students need to occasionally feel success, or else they’ll shut down. If you’re a teacher, you don’t need me or a psychological research study to tell you that. So the question is, how can you get students to feel success? That is, what can you do to prevent learned helplessness?
My suggestion is to look for acceptable and accessible entry points.
Consider the following problem, which might be seen in a middle school classroom:
What is the maximum possible product of a set of positive integers whose sum is 20?
As written, that problem contains three words — maximum, product, and integers — that may confound some students. For middle school students who do understand the terminology, finding an appropriate strategy might be daunting.
In my opinion, the following is a better way to present this problem so that all students have an entry point:
Find some numbers with a sum of 20. Now, multiply those numbers together. Compare your result with a partner. Whose result was greater? Can the two of you work together to find a product that’s greater still?
Even a struggling middle school student could start this activity. Surely he could find some numbers with a sum of 20. Certainly, he could multiply them without a problem.
Why is this a better presentation? The wording is simplified. There is encouragement to work with a partner. It feels more like a collaborative game than a traditional math problem. It sounds — dare I say it? — like fun.
When a struggling student is able to get into a problem, and they’re able to make some strides in the right direction, and they’re rewarded by your positive encouragement, they attain some level of success. Maybe they won’t solve the problem entirely, but who cares? For many students, trying is progress.
And for students who are having trouble finding any success, perhaps the following words of encouragement will help.
If at first you don’t succeed, call it version 1.0.
If at first you don’t succeed, destroy all evidence that you ever tried.
If at first you don’t succeed, blame someone else and seek counseling.
If at first you don’t succeed, then skydiving is not for you.
If at first you don’t succeed, get new batteries.
If at first you don’t succeed, try two more times so your failure is statistically significant.